| Republic of Tyskreich|
“Vielgeliebtes Tyskreich” (Traditional)
|Anthem: Auferstanden aus Ruinen|
Location of Tyskreich (dark green), Germania (light green), Scandinavia (light yellow), Europe (gray)
Tyskreich, officially the Republic of Tyskreich (German: Republik Tyskreich) is a nation in Eastern Scandinavia/Northern Germania. Bordering Franken to its south and Arendaal to its west, it shares sea borders with Cornavia and Finylandia to the north, and Batavië and Freecities Union to the west. Overseas possessions share sea borders with Warr and the Makai Islands. The overseas possession of Fjalladrottning is several hundred kilometers north of the Free German State.
The name Tyskreich derives from the Scandinavian term "Tysk" which was the term given to the German speaking people the lived to the south of them. The term was borrowed by the German speakers to identify themselves around the current city of Hertha. German Tyskreich is readily analyzable as connected to "tysk" and Reich "realm, dominion, empire".
The earliest archaeological findings in Tyskreich date back to the interglacial period from 130,000-110,000 BC. Tyskreich has been inhabited since around 12,500 BC and agriculture has been evident since 3,900 BC. The Nordic Bronze Age (1,800–600 BC) in Tyskreich was marked by burial mounds, which left an abundance of findings including lurs, shields and chariots.
Age of Vikings and Christian beginningsEdit
From roughly 500 BC to 500 AD, Germanic tribes originating from modern day Greater Sarmatia and Wiese settled in the forested lands of modern Tyskreich, sacking small towns and cities that followed the Christian faith or looking for fertile lands. These societies eventually formed larger warrior clans and usage of limited democracy to settle disputes between clans at "parlimentary" like meetings. The worst of disagreements between clans would result in familial wars which would often last until a family were entirely killed. The tribes of Tyskreich evaded Christianity for centuries as Christian priests were often seen as great for robbery or at the very least a hostage situation for sometimes immense amounts of gold.
It would be the first contact with Vikings from modern Arendaal which resulted in familial wars with Arendaal based Vikings that would often end in disaster for Tysk clans in the early half of the 8th century. It would be the famed Issak Västraström who would launch his own attack upon Arendaal in 791 AD to a great degree of success which would also be the unifying point for modern Noregerike and Tyskreich. Västraström's success would mark the beginning of the Tysk Viking Age in which Tysk based German Vikings would then launch raids across Germania and Scandinavia. In these raids the infamous Siege of Lyngholm in 847 AD occurred which highlighted the brutality of Tysk Vikings and continues to be a point of contention today between Tyskreich and Warre.
Tysk Vikings became notorious for their kidnappings and forced marriages. Speaking a similar language to much of Germania, as opposed to the Arendaal based Vikings, Tysk Vikings became despised by other Germans and according to some historians this has led to the active divide between Tyskreich and the rest of Germania today.
Christianity would become introduced in to Tyskreich in the last 9th century via raids in modern Wiese and Wendmark and would slowly spread throughout Tyskreich up until the 10th and 11th centuries. The introduction of Christianity coincided with the decline of Tysk Viking raids and beginning of the Holy Germanic Empire in 930 AD.
Unification, the Hanseatic League and the Holy Germanic Empire eraEdit
By 890 AD the Kings of Fjäderholmarna had unified much of modern Tyskreich under the banner of Christianity and renamed itself the Kingdom of Tyskreich after the Siege of Hertha in 893 AD. In various negotiations with the Papacy, the King of Tyskreich, Albrecht II agreed to join the Holy Germanic Empire in return for 200 marks of gold and the right to lawfully conquer the Western Christian Tysk territories with the approval of God. In 942 AD, Albrecht II made good on his promise, and proclaimed the Kingdom of Tyskreich fully unified and part of the Holy Germanic Empire. The gold never arrived, and would come back to haunt the Papacy during the Protestant reformation and nearly 1000 years later in the Great War.
The Hanseatic League would be formed in 1221 AD between cities of Tyskreich that could not engage in commerce with each other safely and upon its success quickly spread to coastal cities and free cities in modern day (in order of expansion) Tyskreich, Franken, Arendaal, Batavië, Kryobaijan, Greater Sarmatia, and Commandry. The Hanseatic League became the beckon of light in a troubled time for traders in the Holy Germanic Empire which had difficulty maintaining safe borders and regulating commerce within its borders which were nether well protected nor enforced. Hanse, as called by those in Tyskreich would last as a trading monopoly in Northern Europe until roughly 1570 AD, a few years after Franken separated from the Holy Germanic Empire with Tyskreich as Protestant nations.
Tyskreich itself during this era worked hard to expand. Since it could not expand into Central Germania due to the alliances built into the Holy Germanic Empire, Tyskreich looked westward. In the War of Crown Princess Ragnhild, Tyskreich successfully annexed Nordea, Trollkyrka, Dronning Maud Land and Kronprinsesse Ragnhild Land from Warre in 1473. It would be Queen Ragnhild in 1494 who would continue to expand westward when exploration found the uninhabited island of that was named Fjalladrottning. Eventually finding that she could make contact with the Sarmatian peoples of the east via this route in 1497 and in fact proving that the world was round when explorer Anders Hasselbeck set foot in Novgorod. Most of the world rejected Hasselbeck's claim, suggesting he sailed eastward until an emissary from Franken was taken on the vessel that made Tyskreich's first contact with the peoples of Jizhou and Oikawa in 1501. This event marked the beginning of expanded trade and riches in Tyskreich. This inflated Tyskreich's power in Germania via the riches of trade and helped begin the end of Tysk involvement in the Holy Germanic Empire in random acts of defiance to the Holy Germanic Emperor.
Tyskreich would end her involvement in the Holy Germanic Empire immediately once Franken proved it could successfully divorce itself from involvement in 1568, the King Friedrich I literally sending a message to the Holy Germanic Emperor the very day that the news had reached the throne room in Hertha, and immediately proclaiming itself as a Protestant nation in spite of the Holy Germanic Empire and the Papacy. The riches of increased trade with the far east and the seizure of papal lands and gold in caused rampant inflation which led to a period of decline for Tyskreich soon after renewed independence.
The spirit of Ragnhild, return of Catholicism and colonialismEdit
The invincible empire and defeat in the Great WarEdit
The People's Republic and the White RevolutionEdit
Geography, climate, flora and faunaEdit
Situated in Northern Germania and South Central Scandinavia, Tyskreich straddles the Bay of Halland connecting Tyskreich proper and Noregerike. While southern Tyskreich is predominantly agricultural, the northern latitudes have increasing forest coverage. Around 65% of Tyskreich's total land area is covered with forests. Mountains and lakes occupy Eastern Tyskreich while plains and rivers occupy Western Tyskreich. The Far West, in Noregerike is flat with very little elevation.
The climate is in the temperate zone. The winters are not particularly cold, with mean temperatures in January and February of 32 °F (0 °C), and the summers are cool, with a mean temperature in August of 60.3 °F (15.7 °C). Tyskreich has an average of 121 days per year with precipitation, on average receiving a total of 28 inches (712 mm) per year; autumn is the wettest season and spring the driest.
Because of Tyskreich's northern location, the length of the day with sunlight varies greatly. There are short days during the winter with sunrise coming around 9:00 a.m. and sunset 4:30 p.m., as well as long summer days with sunrise at 4:00 a.m. and sunset at 10 p.m. The shortest and longest days of the year have traditionally been celebrated.
Wild animals include the arctic fox, mink, mice, moose/elk, rats, rabbits and reindeer. Polar bears habitat Noregerike and occasionally visit the islands, traveling on icebergs. Birds, especially sea birds, are a very important part of Tyskreich's animal life. Puffins, skuas, and kittiwakes nest on its sea cliffs. Though Tyskreich no longer has a commercial whaling fleet, it still allows scientific whale hunts. The spoils of these scientific whale hunts often find themselves on the open market.
Tyskreich possesses several islands which all vary in climate and geography. The islands in the Northern Hemisphere, which include, Dronning Maud Land, Fjalladrottning, Kronprinsesse Ragnhild Land, Lütje Hörn, Lyngholm, Nordea, Rügen, and Trollkyrka, are typically colder than Tyskreich proper with usually 50 to 100 more days of precipitation. They tend to possess very little foliage, although legends have suggested that some islands like Fjalladrottning once possessed large forests, little evidence of them exist today. The islands are usually dominated by vast hills and valleys covered in emerald colored grasslands. Islands like Trollkyrka and Nordea are often dominated by intense fog in the autumn and winter months.
Tyskreich possesses only one island in the Southern Hemisphere, Karolinen or Caroline Island. The island has a tropical climate with pronounced wet and dry seasons. Temperatures vary primarily with elevation and show little seasonal change. The lowlands are uniformly hot; the central plateau and mountain areas are more moderate. The rainy season extends from May to October. Almost all the annual rainfall occurs during this time, and yearly totals, particularly on southern-facing mountain slopes, can be as high as 85.4 inches (2,170 mm). Climate and political stability have allowed for it to be a major exporter of bananas, coffee and sugar. The island is also considered a biodiversity hotspot because of the numerous plant and animal species that can be found there.
Administration and politicsEdit
The Parliament of Tyskreich is located in Hertha-Kaiseringarten, the site of a once enormous park the country's capital. Tyskreich became a federal, parliamentary, democratic republic through the Expanded Federal Constitution of 1992, a document which compliments the Constitution of 1948. The political system of the Republic with its 13 states is based on the constitution of 1948 and 1992, which was enacted originally on July 12, 1948 upon the conclusion of the Great War. The head of state is the Federal President (Bundespräsident), who is directly elected by popular vote. The chairman of the Federal Government is the Federal Chancellor, who is appointed by the president upon recommendation of Parliament. The government can be removed from office by either a presidential decree or by vote of no confidence in the lower chamber of parliament, the Nationalrat. Voting for the federal president and for the Parliament used to be compulsory in Tyskreich during the Communist era, but this was abolished in 1992 upon with the Expanded Constitution.
The Parliament of Tyskreich consists of two chambers. The composition of the Nationalrat (200 seats) is determined every five years (or whenever the Nationalrat has been dissolved by the federal president on a motion by the federal chancellor, or by Nationalrat itself) by a general election in which every citizen over 16 years has voting rights. While there is a general threshold of 4 percent for all parties at federal elections (Nationalratswahlen), there remains the possibility to gain a direct seat, or Direktmandat, in one of the 50 regional election districts.
The Nationalrat is the dominant chamber in the formation of legislation in Tyskreich. However, the upper house of parliament, the Bundesrat, has a limited right of veto (the Nationalrat can—in almost all cases—ultimately pass the respective bill by voting a second time. This is referred to as 'Beharrungsbeschluss, lit. "vote of persistence"). There has been an ongoing movement to reduce the Government to one chamber of Parliament to improve cost-effectiveness.
The basis of Tyskreich's democracy is that the citizens themselves choose those who are to represent them in Parliament. At the same time, they elect their representatives in municipal and county councils, who make decisions at the local and regional level where they are responsible for such matters as schools, health and medical care and various social services. The municipalities and county councils have a high level of self-government which is protected in the Expanded Constitution. This includes the right to tax their residents. But it is Parliament that determines the framework for their activities.
- ALL PUBLIC POWER IN TYSKREICH PROCEEDS FROM THE PEOPLE
- Instrument of Government, Chapter I, Article I, Expanded Constitution
Modern representative democracy is based on the existence of parties that have different political messages to convey and that propose different solutions to problems in society. The political parties stand for election, and it is mainly the parties the citizens vote for. If the voters are not satisfied with the way the representatives perform their task, they can show their dissatisfaction by voting for other parties in the coming elections. The results of the elections to Parliament determine which party or parties may form the Government.
- THE GOVERNMENT GOVERNS THE REALM. IT IS ACCOUNTABLE TO PARLIAMENT
- Instrument of Government, Chapter I, Article VI, Expanded Constitution
According to the Tysk parliamentary system, the Government must have the confidence of Parliament or at least be tolerated by it to be able to govern the country. For a Government proposal to be accepted by Parliament, it has to be supported by a majority of the members voting in the Chamber. If the Government loses this support, it may choose to resign or call an extraordinary election. The lower house of Parliament, the Nationalrat, can also force the Government to resign by the means of a declaration of no confidence. There is thus a clear connection between the voters' choice on election day and the policies pursued by the Government.
- PARLIAMENT IS APPOINTED BY MEANS OF FREE, SECRET AND DIRECT ELECTIONS
- Instrument of Government, Chapter III, Article I, , Expanded Constitution
On occasion, parliament may wish to hear citizens' opinion on a specific matter. It can then decide to call a referendum, which is a form of direct democracy. The referendums that have taken place in Tyskreich have been conservative in nature. Parliament does not always have to follow the result of a referendum, but historically follow the results 84% of the time. An example of when Parliament heeded the will of the people is when the voters said "nein" (no) to joining the Council of Nations (28.1 Ja, 71.9% Nein). Parliament only moved against a referendum once in the creation of a new currency (15.5% Ja, 82.9% Nein); however, Parliament passed a Government bill ordering a change to the new Schilling in 1993.
- PARLIAMENT IS THE FOREMOST REPRESENTATIVE OF THE PEOPLE. PARLIAMENT ENACTS THE LAWS, DETERMINES STATE TAXES AND DECIDES HOW STATE FUNDS SHALL BE EMPLOYED. PARLIAMENT SHALL EXAMINE THE GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATION OF THE REALM.
- Instrument of Government, Chapter I, Article IV, Expanded Constitution
An item of parliamentary business often begins with a proposal from the Government (a Government bill). In the bill, the Government can propose a new law or an amendment to an existing law, normally after a thorough inquiry into the matter. The inquiry report is circulated for comment to various public agencies and organizations, which are thus given an opportunity to submit their views on the inquiry's conclusions and proposals, before the Government presents its bill to Parliament.
It is in Parliament, however, that decisions are taken. By means of legislation Parliament determines such matters as the maximum permitted blood alcohol level for car drivers, whether seal-hunting should be allowed or the number of days of entitlement to parental allowance. On the basis of a proposal from the Government, Parliament also decides on taxation and determines the central government budget. Furthermore, Parliament influences foreign policy, the it is the Government that presents Tyskreich's views on foreign policy and takes the day-to-day decisions on independent matters of foreign affairs.
The Government is responsible for ensuring that Parliaments's decisions are implemented and it can issue regulations on how this is to be done. However, the Government is not permitted to interfere in the way in which a public agency, a local authority or a court deals with a specific matter or case. If a minister is found to have interfered, he or she may be forced to resign;"ministerial rule" is prohibited in Tyskreich. It is the public authorities and agencies themselves that decide the thousands of matters they have to deal with.
Finally, it is Parliament's task to examine Government activities, to ensure that the Government carries out its responsiblities in accordance with existing laws and regulations, and the decisions taken by Parliament are implemented in society.
Tyskreich is considered to have one of the healthiest economies of the post-communist countries and is currently one of the fastest growing countries within Northern Europe. Since the fall of the communist government, Tyskreich has steadfastly pursued a policy of liberalizing the economy and today stands out as a fairly successful example of the transition from a centrally planned economy to a primarily capitalistic market economy.
The Tysk economy is based heavily upon manufacturing and exports. Timber, hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy heavily oriented toward foreign trade. Tyskreich's engineering sector accounts for 50% of output and exports. Telecommunications, the automotive industry and the pharmaceutical industries are also of great importance. Generally lacking in major mineral resources and not maintaining an agricultural sector large enough to feed its own people, Tyskreich has been forced to rely heavily upon grain imports and its fisheries.
Lyndanisse Special Economic ZoneEdit
Owed to the economic experiment that reformists wanted to play in Tyskreich during the transformation to a Republic in 1991 and 1992, when Lyndanisse won a bid to become the nation's only Special Economic Zone in July of 1992. It was then a small city based upon fishing, having lost its old appeal as a medieval trading center in the 17th century. Since then, foreign nationals have invested more than 300 billion Schillings for building factories and forming joint ventures. It is now reputedly one of the fastest growing cities in the world. Being northern mainland Tyskreich's major financial center, Lyndanisse is home to the Lyndanisse Stock Exchange as well as the headquarters of numerous high-tech companies. Lyndanisse is also the second busiest port in Europe, ranking only after Nokanawa.
Lyndanisse was established via the "three + four" standards drawn up by Parliament in 1992.
- Special tax incentives for foreign investments in the SEZs.
- Greater independence on international trade activities.
- Economic characteristics are represented as "4 principles":
- Construction primarily relies on attracting and utilizing foreign capital
- Primary economic forms are Tysk-foreign joint ventures and partnerships as well as wholly foreign-owned enterprises
- Products are primarily export-oriented
- Economic activities are primarily driven by market forces
Energy and transport infrastructureEdit
Tyskreich's energy market is largely privatized. In 2006, electricity from hydropower accounted for 44% of total national production and nuclear power delivered 47%. At the same time more environmental energy including the use of biofuels, peat etc. produced 1% of electricity, while wind power produced 9%. Tyskreich is a net exporter of electricity by a margin of 57 TWh. Biomass is mainly used to produce heat for district heating and central heating and industry processes.
Additionally, Tyskreich has proposed banning gasoline fossil fuel-driven vehicles between 2025-2040. The country has for many years pursued a strategy of indirect taxation as an instrument of environmental policy, including energy taxes in general and carbon dioxide taxes in particular.
Tyskreich has 101,101 mi (162,707 km) of paved road and 887 mi (1,428 km) of expressways. Motorways run through into Franken and toward Arendaal via Noregerike and Tyskreich with ferries which allow for motor vehicle and train transport. The system of motorways is still under construction with a new direct expressway from Hertha to Götköping expected to open in late 2010. Tyskreich had left-hand traffic from approximately 1736 and continued to do so well into the 20th century. The Communist Era Government introduced right-hand traffic in 1951 and Tyskreich has continued to utilize right-handed traffic ever since.
The rail transport market is privatized, but while there are many privately owned enterprises, the largest operator is still owned by the state. Operators include state operated, Tyske Reichsbahn (TR), Noregs statsbaner (NSB; division of TR) Statens Järnvägar (SJ; largest private competitor), Hanse Transport Group, Green Cargo, and a number of regional companies. Most of the railways are owned and operated by the State or Statens Järnvägar and leased to other companies.
The largest airports include Lyndanisse Flughafen (53,467,450 passengers in 2009), Götköping Flughafen (34,530,593 passengers in 2009), Hertha-Lufthof Airport (14,486,610 passengers in 2009). Tyskreich's major airlines are Det Norske Luftfartselskap, Interflug, Luftbahn, Luftvarjag, Tyske Luftschiffahrts AG (Luftschiffahrt), and Tyske Luftverkehrs. As of July 2010, Luftschiffahrts and Norske Luftfartselskap are the largest airlines based upon passengers.
Tyskreich hosts the two largest port companies in Germania and Scandinavia, Port of Lyndanisse AG and the transnational company Nordverschiffen.
Responsibility for educational oversight in Tyskreich is entrusted to the federal states (Bundesländer), and to the federal government. School attendance is compulsory for nine years, i.e. usually to the age of fifteen.
As nearly all Tyskreicher parents (roughly 85%) work outside of the home, there is a significant need for adquate childcare services. Tyskreich "Kinderkrippe" is available to all children up to the age of three. From ages three to six, children attend Kindergarten. Kindergarten is much more intensive in Tyskreich as part of the old communist era teaching standards in which children learned to interact with other children, got used to a stable daily routine and were introduced to the idea of learning. The contents of activities in Kindergarten are regulated nationwide by a uniform teaching plan and include German language and speech, children's literature, mathematics, introducation to daily life (visiting factories and corporations, traffic education, cultural life, introduction to important professions), introduction to natural and scientific phenomena (weather, seasons, sky, stars, rocks etc.), music, sports, artistic and constructive handicrafts and esteeming pieces of art. There is little teaching of reading, writing or arithmetics, but the fundamental conceptions were taught to develop intellectual and motoric abilities. For instance, introduction to set theory within the numbers up to 10, counting up to 20, handling of quantities, crafting and motoric exercises to prepare handwriting, the handling of pencils, scissors, fabrics and glue, and other skills. Lately, newer Kindergartens might introduce children to computers with educational games.
Early Gymnasium founded during the Communist Era, focused strongly on German language, mathematics, physics, chemistry, astronomy, physical geography, sports and, of course, technology-related theoretical and practical work. Instead of a comprehensive school with primary education followed by secondary education, Tysk Gymnasium had restructured the classic education process completely by establishing a systemic curriculum which expanded the concepts of secondary education into the lower classes. For instance in mathematics, handling of variables, math text problems with a multi-level solution, a fully developed embedded course in geometry, the introduction to vectors, the handling and solving of simple equations etc. were taught from the beginning of the first grade. But nevertheless other subjects like arts, music and so forth were not neglected but emphasized to be important for an all-around, gap-less general education.
Modern Gymnasium attempts to continue from the old Communist Era in its standards of teaching and curriculum, yet emphasizes a more relaxed and caring attitude that is an influence from nations such as Franken and Arendaal which aren't as rigorous and allow for more individuality and emotional growth.
One lesson lasts 45 minutes and students go to school six days a week. On Saturdays, there were approximately four to five lessons. The Ministry of Education determined a table of lessons (Stundentafel) which expressed the ideas of the curriculum by naming the subjects that were believed to be crucial for a modern general education together with the number of weekly lessons for every single subject. The table of lessons fragmented in two parts during the Communist Era, the compulsory teaching (obligatorischer Unterricht) and the elective teaching (fakulativer Unterricht). In the mid-1990's a third component was introduced, the optionally compulsory teaching (wahlweise obligatorischer Unterricht) which includes music, athletics and specialized sciences.
Gymnasium is designed as a reliable all-day school (verläßliche Tagesschule), which means the compulsory lessons took place in the morning and the timetable for each class was organised in a way that there should not be any free periods while classes should end at the same time every day. Therefore, by allocating sufficient resources to the education system, Tyskreich employs a high number of teachers and educators, so the average number of students per class has lessened from 35 in the 1950's to 19 and lesser in the 1970's to the current number range which varies from 15 to 20 depending on the region. The high number of compulsory lessons are evenly spread throughout the six schooldays of the week, there is de facto no loss of class time because of ill teachers or shortage of teachers. Compulsory teaching is finished around noon and the afternoon was free for a variety of optional activities like elective teaching, study groups, project groups, children and team sports and organized afternoon care for students in the lower classes.
The beginning of the school year is September 1 unless that day is a Thursday, Friday or Saturday, then school starts the following Monday. The school year always has 38 weeks of classes with 30 weeks covered by the nationwide unified curriculum.
Since 1951 the learning of the Tysknorsk language as the foreign language was obligatory, because of the union with Noregerike. Students in Noregerike study in German, although recently schools have converted to teaching in Tysknorsk depending upon the local community's usage of German. Also available are English and French due to the proximity, but only as an additional elective foreign language. Vlaams (Batavië) was taught as an elective from 1948 to 1992 but was discontinued after the nation's move towards a Republic which effectively removed it from the Communist sphere.
Vocational training and UniversityEdit
After the tenth year of Gymnasium, a student can either end his education or continue on to 2½ or 3 years (depending on subject) of vocational training in a specialized subject such as building/construction, telecommunications or electronics. Vocational training is split in practical work and theoretical learning which focuses both on the studied subject of career.
Entrance to Tysk Universities was very limited in the Communist era, saved for students with strong standing in the party or very active in their communities with high marks. This is a drastic change from today where most students elect to attend a university of some degree. To attend University education in Tysk one has to finish Gymnasium. Access to public schools are restricted to 2-10 students per Gymnasium graduating class. Private universities which have drastically grown in number since 1992 are often seen as either affordable or highly illustrious. Access to private universities aren't limited by graduating class, but rather based upon a combination of their marks and their ability shown on the General Admission Aptitude test.
Universities today are very closely linked to both local Gymnasiums and to local and sometimes large national industries and corporations. Mostly focused on technical education, Tysk public universities were highly regarded all over the world to be of a very high standard. Tysk private universities often vary, but focus greatly upon research both scientific and analytical.
Since 1995 universities both public and private have competed in team sports and athletics via the National University Athletics Federation which is often criticized by private clubs, especially in football/soccer which believe it is a detriment to their training for a club and often withhold their athletes from competing, although there are some select cases otherwise. Despite this criticism many famous footballers have been discovered via university sports who were often overlooked in their youth.
People live here, largest German speaking country in Europe, largest Catholic nation in Europe.
Classical music and operas! Yodeling, Schrammelmusik...
Classical: Franz Schubert, Richard Wagner, Johann Sebastian Bach, Johannes Brahms
Football, Telephone, Radio, Submarine, Hot-Air Balloon, Fahrenheit temperature scale, automobile safety belt...
Wiener Schnitzel, Schweinsbraten, Kaiserschmarren, Knödel, Sachertorte and Tafelspitz... Pez Candy...
We made football and cross country skiing...